Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Oligonucleotides July 1-6, 2007

Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Oligonucleotides July 1-6, 2007
Newport, RI
DNA is the storehouse of genetic information. Genes are duplicated during each cell division (replication), and they are transcribed into the corresponding RNAs (transcription) before translation into the proteins that are required for cell function. RNA is subsequently processed so that the non-coding parts are removed (processing), and it is then transported out of the nucleus (transport). Outside of the nucleus, proteins are assembled, based upon the triplet code, at ribosomal sites in the translation process. This complex interplay requires constant interaction between proteins and many other cofactors. The goal of this Conference is to highlight our current understanding of the various chemical steps through the use of synthetic "Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Oligonucleotides" and their analogs in order to design new therapeutic, analytical and diagnostic agents. The usefulness of these synthetic compounds is enormous. Synthetic nucleosides and nucleotides and their analogs, for example, have found application as many remarkable antiviral and antitumor drugs which are used widely in the clinic against many deadly bacterial and viral infections and against malignant tumors. Many drugs approved by the FDA as antiviral/antitumor agents are nucleoside-based compounds. The mechanism of action of many such nucleoside/nucleotide based inhibitors is through interaction/inhibition with/of the target enzymes (novel mechanism-based inactivators). The use of oligonucleotides and their analogs is, on the other hand, constantly revealing new methods to alter and to monitor gene expression by means of antisense RNA or DNA, triplex DNA, ribozymes, RNAi, CpG immune modulatory oligonucleotides, DNA oxidative damage, gene repair, DNA chips, and by other approaches. The design and synthesis of oligonucleotides and their analogs have opened doors to the understanding of the mechanisms of action of these compounds as potential therapeutic agents, including their uptake, stability, in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and in both in vitro and in vivo systems, leading to lowered toxicity and improved efficacy. Oligonucleotides with fluorescent dyes provide unique molecular probe systems that are useful for the detection of PCR products and nucleic acid hybridization as well as for sequencing. Many revolutionary concepts involving specifically designed RNA and DNA oligonucleotides with novel functions have been shown to be useful in target validation and as new analytical and therapeutic agents. In this respect, new emerging areas include the design of nanoprobes, sensors and many sensitive diagnostic tools for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism, high affinity binding (aptamers), catalytic activity (ribozymes and deoxyribozymes) and combinations of binding and catalytic properties (aptazymes).
This very brief summary of the field demonstrates how important the synthetic chemistry of "Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Oligonucleotides" is in the exploration and understanding of life, and how this knowledge has been invaluable in the design of new analytical and therapeutic agents. This opportunity to communicate with each other and to learn from our individual ideas and experiments at this GRC will undoubtedly be of enormous value.

Phone: 401-783-4011
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