Monitoring the homogeneity of adenovirus preparations (a gene therapy delivery system) using analytical ultracentrifugation

Monitoring the homogeneity of adenovirus preparations (a gene therapy delivery system) using analytical ultracentrifugation
Received 17 August 2006. Available online 20 December 2006.
Steven A. Berkowitza, , and John S. Philob
Analytical Biochemistry
Article in Press
Copyright ? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
aDepartment of Analytical Development, Biogen Idec Inc., 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
bAlliance Protein Laboratories, 3957 Corte Cancion, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360, USA
This study explores the capability of modern analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) to characterize the homogeneity, under product formulation conditions, of preparations of adenovirus vectors used in gene therapy and to assess the lot-to-lot consistency of this unique drug product. We demonstrate that a single sedimentation velocity run on an adenovirus sample can detect and accurately quantify a number of different forms of virus particles and subvirus particles. These forms include (a) intact virus monomer particles, (b) virus aggregates, (c) empty capsids (ECs), and (d) smaller assembly intermediates or subparticles formed during normal or aberrant virus assembly (or as a result of damage to the intact adenovirus or EC material during all phases of virus production). This information, which is collected on adenovirus samples under the exact formulation conditions that exist in the adenovirus vial, is obtained by direct boundary modeling of the AUC data generated from refractometric and/or UV detection systems using the computer program SEDFIT developed by Peter Schuck. Although both detectors are useful, refractometric detection using the Rayleigh interferometer offers a key advantage for providing accurate concentration information due to the similar response factors for both protein and DNA and its insensitivity to light scattering effects. Additional AUC data obtained from analytical band sedimentation velocity and density gradient sedimentation equilibrium experiments in CsCl with UV detection were also generated. These results further support conclusions concerning the solution properties of adenovirus, the identity of the different virus species, and the overall capability of boundary sedimentation velocity analysis.
Keywords: Analytical ultracentrifugation; Adenovirus; Aggregation; Empty capsids; Gene therapy

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